Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer: Who Are Most Likely to Have It?

Aside from skin cancer, prostate cancer has been reported to be the most common type among American men. It has been projected that more than 200,000 new cases of this condition will be diagnosed in the U.S. and more than 27,000 male patients will die of the disease in 2006. Statistics also showed that a little over 1.8 million American men are survivors of the condition.

Prostate cancer has been found to occur in higher percentages among African Americans than any other race. Compared with Asian and European countries, the United States is where the disease occurs more commonly. The reasons for these percentages are not conclusive. Some experts are claiming that this might be due to the diet of Asian men which is rich in vegetables and fruits as opposed to Western males’ red meat-rich diet. In the case of higher number of confirmed cases in the United States, medical researchers are asserting that this might be due to better diagnostics systems in the country compared with less developed areas.

Among the factors associated with the risk of acquiring cancer of the prostate, age is the primary culprit. The condition is quite uncommon among men aged below 45, but the chance of having it increases rapidly after age 50. In terms of genetics, men with a first degree relative, like a brother or a father, who has the condition have been found to be at higher risk of developing the cancer. Although no study has yet to find what particular gene affects a man’s chances of developing this condition, statistics have shown that those who have affected relatives tend to develop cancer in the prostate as they reach the common affected age.

Diet has also been implicated as a risk factor of this type of cancer. For those who eat a lot of red meat and high fat dairy products, the risk of developing the cancer is believed to be higher. Smokers have also been considered as among the high risk groups. This might be because cigarettes and tobacco have been credited as contributing factors in DNA damage and mutation, although scientists have yet to map out the exact process by which smoking contributes to the development of cancer in the prostate.

Since cancer of the prostate is a slow developing type, it might not be diagnosed for years. Autopsy reports have shown that some men who have died of other causes have been found to have cancer in their prostates but have shown no symptoms and have not suffered or been affected by the disease. The condition, being more common among older men particularly those who are over 50 years old, can just be present without showing itself and without bothering the person; and eventually, the patient might die of other causes without the cancer ever manifesting itself or making the individual suffer.

Despite being a slow developing type in majority of the cases, it is still an advantage if prostate cancer can be diagnosed at its earliest stage. Numerous treatments and management methods have been developed through the years which have provided higher survival rates and caused the number of deaths to decline every year. Scientists are hopeful that eventually, this condition will be absolutely explained and prevention techniques will be developed.

Hair Transplant in Delhi, Hair/Skin Treatment in Delhi, Plastic Surgery in Delhi


Face Treatmens

Face & Neck Lift:
Nobody likes wrinkles and fine lines on the face. To get rid of these unwanted ageing signs, you can seek the help from the face & neck lift surgery. There are some of the options as well, like an endoscopic facelift, classical facelift, fluid facelift, etc.

This surgery allows you to get the position of your eyebrows elevated by altering some of the tissues present in the forehead. And, it can also treat the crumpled skin above the nose and in the eyebrows.

Botox & Fillers:
It is a non-surgical way to treat the ageing signs present on the face. The Botox can help in reducing the fine lines and wrinkles while the Fillers help in rejuvenating your skin.

This is helpful in enhancing the shape of your eyebrows. With this surgery, you can get your eyebrows permanently shaped, make your light brows thicker with the hair transplant, and get a new shape of your eyebrows.

This surgery treats your droopy and baggy eyelids and removes the baggy bulge present under the eyes. You can also get an extra layer of artificial eyelashes with this surgery to intensify the look.

With the help of this surgery, you can alter the structure of your nose, rehabilitate the functions, rectify the nasal damage, and get it contoured precisely so you wouldn’t have to face respiratory problems.

This process allows you to have an elevated cheekbone by extracting the Buccal fat and the mid cheek from your face. You get two options to upraise your cheeks, either the cheek implant surgery or the fillers. The choice is yours.

For the lip augmentation, reduction, and the lifting purposes, you can opt for a Lips surgery. This surgery will help you in attaining the perfect shape of your lips.

The extra fat on your face obviously does not look good. The Liposuction procedure for the chin surgery extracts the excessive fat from your chin and allows you to get rid of the double chin. And, the Mesotherapy procedure melts the fat and the cellulite from your chin area.

Facial Bone Alteration:
This surgery involves cheek augmentation and reduction process and allows you to flaunt the explicit shape of your facial bone.

Dimple Creation:
Now, you can turn your dreams of having beautiful dimpled smile into the reality. The Dimple Creation surgery can help you in creating the dimples on your cheeks.

Face Thinning:
If you think that your face has a lot of fat, which is not going away with dieting and exercising, then go for the face thinning surgery. It removes the Buccal fat from your face and helps you in gaining slender and perfect outline of the face.

Permanent Makeup:
This procedure involves framing your eyebrows permanently, giving you the permanent pink colour of the lips, and creating or removing the mole from your face or any other body part.
Male & Female Hair Transplant & Treatments

Hair Transplant:
The hair transplant technique is for those people who are going bald for some specific reasons. It involves transplanting the hair from the back of your area to your bald area.

Mesotherapy is a procedure for providing adequate vitamins and nutrients to your hair and rejuvenates the hair growth.

PRP therapy:
This is a non-surgical treatment that is used to treat all the problems related to the hair.
Female & Male Breast Treatments

Breast Enlargement:
To increase the size and to change the shape of the breast, you can go for the breast enlargement surgery. It reshapes the breasts and gives them a perfect contour.

Breast Lift:
This surgery helps in elevating the drooping breasts. You can get the size and the outline corrected. Moreover, it reduces the extra fat and tightens the tissues of the breasts.

Breast Reduction:
It reduces the volume of the breasts and reduces the size of the overly large breasts and gives it a perfect size.

Breast Reconstruction:
This is for all those women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer and had to get one breast removed. This surgery can allow you to get artificial breast reconstructed.

Male Chest Reshaping:
The procedure of this surgery involves the removal of the fatty tissues from the belly of the male and providing the perfect contour to the chest.

Male Chest Reduction:
40-50% men are suffering from Gynecomastia that triggers the abnormal growth of the size of the tissues that can be the cause behind the enlarged breasts. The male chest reduction surgery reduces the size of the chest.

Tummy Tuck
This procedure removes the excessive fat from the abdomen region and offers you a lean and tucked tummy.
Body Treatments

Six Packs Abs:
If you are unable to gain six pack abs with regular exercising, then this surgery can fulfill your that dream.

Hour Glass Shape:
You can attain the shape similar to that of an hour-glass with this surgery. In this procedure, your excessive fat gets removed, the waistline gets reshaped, hips get contoured, and the abdominal wall gets a whole new look.

Brazilian Butt Lift:
To reshape your buttocks in a more precise form, the Brazilian butt lift surgery is specially designed for that purpose.

Thigh Gap:
This surgery is available to remove the fat from your thighs and increase the gap. It will help make your legs look slimmer.

Full Body Lift:
In this procedure, you can go for the arm and thigh lift. The fat from your arms and thighs is removed and the shape gets contoured and the tissues get tightened.

Vaginal Rejuvenation:
This is one of the best procedures for the vaginal rejuvenating purpose. It tightens the inner & outer muscles of the vagina and contours the overall structure.

Hand & Feet Rejuvenation:
To remove the ageing signs from your hands and feet, you can opt for this surgery.

Meso & PRP Body:
This procedure uses the growth factors that are present in your platelets to reduce the effects of the ageing from your body.
Skin Treatments

Chemical Peel:
This treatment is used for creating new skin cells, treating the scars of the acnes and the dark patches formed on the skin.

Silk Peel:
It is another procedure for correcting the skin tone, treating the damaged skin, acne scars, hyperpigmentation, and other skin related problems.

Hydra Facial:
It is helpful in improving the skin entirely. This treatment offers you smooth, rejuvenated, and bright skin.

Pelleve Skin Tightening:
This treatment is for correcting all the skin relevant problems that are present in your entire body. Whether you want to get the wrinkles from your face treated or want to tighten the skin of the body, you can go for this procedure.

IPL Photo Facials:
This is a laser treatment for correcting the abnormalities of your skin easily and efficiently.

Tattoo Removal:
The easiest way of getting the tattoo removed from your body is by undergoing the tattoo removal procedure. You can get the tattoo removed either partially or fully.

Laser Skin Toning:
This laser skin toning technique is one of the most effective techniques for bringing your skin tone to a more natural color.

Laser Hair Reduction:
Now, you can easily get the unwanted hair removed from your body with this technique. It involves removing hair from the armpits, legs, hands, and face.

Full Body Polishing:
This is a Laser Resurfacing Technique that offers you a revitalized skin. This technique is helpful in extracting the dead skin layers from your entire body. You can use this technique either for your face only or for the entire body, the choice is yours.

Mommy Makeover:
This makeover is for those ladies who have experienced pregnancy. This procedure involves the treatment for breasts, legs, arms, and the tummy.

Men Makeover:
This procedure involves chest reshaping, beard shaping, six pack abs, laser hair reduction, jawline contours, nose restructuring, and eye bag removal.

Gender Reassignment
This surgery includes the transformation of a man to a woman and vice versa.

Take seriously pretty ENT health issues to fight cancer and consult an oncosurgeon

The best treasure that we have is health. We have to keep it better as good health yield better ideas and help us to keep move. However, especially when we are affected with some problem such as in ear problem or nose problem you ignore it and think that it will get better with time. But it is dangerous and with such mentality the problem gets worse, even impaired functioning of the organ one have to face.
Take seriously the Ear problem
Hearing problem can yield serious trouble that can end with total deafness. Therefore never ever neglect such problem, even in very little problem you should have to take action. First, you should consult a specialist when you face any kind of trouble regarding your ear and then follow the advice as suggested by the doctor. Proper medication and surgery help you to get recovery soon.
Get good advice in Headache
The same thought you have to retain for a headache problem. It may be related to various diseases. Primarily, you have to identify what is actually the cause behind the problem and that you can identify only with a specialist doctor. A headache can extend up to the upper part of the neck and is very painful. Many patients get relief with a massage, but most of them get irritation with a massage. Specialists differentiate a headache in many ways, such as – Primary, secondary and miscellaneous category. In case of third category facial pain, cranial neuralgias, upper neck pain are identified that are related to other connective disease. Primary headache are specially caused from tension, migraine, or from cluster. Many patients get relief after taking a small nap. Sometime taking rest become helpful to get relief in that span of time, but this kind of remedies is not helpful to solve the problem completely. You have to take specialist help to get complete recovery. Therefore, find out the best specialist, then undergo a through checkup, and get recovery soon.
Sometime a headache and just an ear problem can yield situations when operation becomes mandatory, such as in case of Cancerous tumor or cancerous growth found in ear, head, or throat. This disease is life taking. If you or any of your family members detected with such problem n its earlier stages, take immediate action by consulting a good ENT- Head & neck oncosurgeon nearby of you. Carry on the tests repeatedly to get sure, follow proper medication, food habits, health regime as suggested by the specialist under whom your treatment is gong n.
Throat cancer treatment with ENT oncosurgeon
Throat cancer is common problem if a patient smokes cigarette or take tobacco on regular basis and in a huge quantity. Consult best head & neck oncosurgeon in Kolkata when you are facing such dilemma. Try to stop smoking and taking tobacco immediately to stop further deterioration. Tumors, Thyroid, and parathyroid gland cancer cases need surgical help for complete recovery. Good ENT oncosurgeon takes best care and helps patients to get recover from throat, nose and ear cancer completely and get back in their normal form within a short duration.

Orchietomy For Prostate Cancer Treatment

Orchietomy is a radical prostate cancer treatment in which the testicles are completely removed. This is done because most cases of prostate cancer develop and progress because of the presence of male sex hormones, or more specifically testosterone and this hormone is produced by the testes.

This type of prostate cancer treatment is a form of hormone therapy which works by manipulating the hormone levels in the body so that the cancerous cells stop growing and dividing. While this therapy is known to have a positive effect on the cancer you must realise that the operation is non-reversible and the chances of your sex life being affected are virtually 100%.

Men who have undergone this form of prostate cancer treatment often report that their libido decreases and so does their desire to have sex. Unfortunately even when they do have the desire for sexual intercourse they may find themselves to be impotent and this can lead to psychological problems in the long term. These side affects of orchietomy are very common and you should take them in to account and discuss them with your partner before you decide to undergo this form of prostate cancer treatment.

Other side effects of this radical prostate cancer treatment are associated with the unbalancing of the male and female hormone levels within the body. By removing the testicles the concentration of testosterone in your body will be reduced by around 90% however the concentration of oestrogen, the female hormone will remain the same. This means that on occasion breast tenderness, growth of the breast tissue and osteoporosis can develop. Other side effects include anaemia, weight gain, and depression and fatigue however your oncologist will be able to explain each of the side effects in much more detail.

Before deciding for or against this form of prostate cancer treatment you need to decide what exactly you want to get out of the treatment. If you want to eliminate the cancer from your body then an orchietomy is a possibility however there are other ways to remove the cancer totally and these alternative treatments have fewer and less severe side effects. If however you are 60+ and do not want to have surgery then this procedure is not for you and radiation therapy can be used to simply control the growth of the cancer. Similarly if you are still relatively young and do not want to be plagued with impotence and lack of sex drive then, again, an orchietomy is probably not the prostate cancer treatment for you.

Because impotence is a major side effect of this radical prostate cancer treatment you should think long and hard before agreeing to anything. Talk to your partner and your oncologist and look into the alternative forms of treatment. There may be a better one for you that only has temporary side effects so that after a few weeks or months you can once again enjoy a full sex life.

How to Ease the Discomfort of a Serious Illness

Being diagnosed with a serious illness and undergoing treatment for conditions can take a lot out of a person. Even if the treatment puts a person on the road to recovery, it can still be exhausting and unpleasant while the treatments are in session. If you are battling kidney cancer or have been diagnosed with sarcoma, there are ways you can ease the discomfort of your necessary treatments. The trick is to create a balance between focusing on healing and treatment and other meaningful things in your life. While your health is important, thinking about it around the clock can create more stress than necessary. Understand that many of the treatments you may undergo may be unpleasant, but will be necessary. Prepare yourself for dealing with the ugly side of your disease or illness by adding some pleasant additions to your life.

First, focus on the basics. Make sure you get plenty of rest when you are battling an illness. It may be tempting to stay up all night thinking about how you can fix things or you may have a difficult time sleeping if you are worrying about the future. It is also likely your loved ones will have a tough time sleeping during the experience. Realize how important rest is for your body and how much healing is done when your body is at rest. If you are having trouble sleeping, speak with your doctor about natural ways to induce relaxation and sleep.

Your diet will be even more important if your body is battling an illness. Remember that food is fuel and you will need to feed your body the right foods to keep it in fighting condition. Some believe certain foods do battle against certain diseases, so as long as the foods are healthy, consider adding them to your diet. If you have been told your condition is weight-related, it may be tempting to crash diet in hopes of fixing the problem. However, the better solution is to swap out unhealthy foods for healthy ones. Consider speaking to a nutritionist about building an eating plan that supports your healing.

One of the most important components of getting healthy and working through unpleasant treatment is to have the support of family and friends. Surround yourself with positive people who are giving and understanding. If there are people in your life who drag you down, now is the time to deal with the problem. The last thing you need is selfish, unhealthy people taking up your time and affecting your health.

Finally, consider how complementary therapies can help ease the unpleasantness of necessary treatments. Using essential oils and herbs can sometimes lessen the nausea that comes with certain treatments or they may just boost your mood during a stressful time. Massage is another great way to reduce the painful effects of some diseases and their treatments. Be sure to speak with your doctor about any complementary or alternative therapies you include in your treatment plan, but chances are, your doctor will encourage anything that is safe and induces comfort.

Livial Medicine Used As A Hormone Replacement Therapy

Menopause is the time in a woman’s life when her period stops. It is a normal part of aging. In the years before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause symptoms such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, to relieve these symptoms. HRT may also protect against osteoporosis.

However, HRT also has risks. It can increase your risk of breast cancer, heart disease and stroke. Certain types of HRT have a higher risk, and each woman’s own risks can vary depending upon her health history and lifestyle. You and your health care provider need to discuss the risks and benefits for you. If you do decide to take HRT, it should be the lowest dose that helps and for the shortest time needed. Taking hormones should be re-evaluated every six months.

Benefits Of Hormone Therapy
Perhaps the largest benefit women receive from hormone therapy is relief from:
1) Hot flashes
2) Night sweats
3) Sleep difficulties
4) Vaginal dryness
5) Anxiety

Usually, hot flashes and night sweats are less severe after a couple of years, especially if hormone therapy is slowly reduced.

Livial is used as a Hormone Replacement therapy (HRT). Generically known as Tibolone, when taken orally it breaks down into three compounds that act as natural oestrogen, progesterone and testosterone found in the body. In some cases it is also used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. Women with early menopause and family history of osteoporosis are generally prescribed Livial. It is available in the form of Livial tablets. Livial is used for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and hot flushes, decreased sex drive, depression due to decreased levels of oestrogen.]

1) People allergic to Livial medicine or to its ingredient should not use this medicine.
2) It should be taken using caution if you have a history of breast cancer, endometriosis, diabetes, gallstone, epilepsy or any other major disorder.
3) Women taking the drug should consult their doctor when there are any worsening symptoms and review the medication at least once a year.
4) Pregnant and breastfeeding mother should not use this medicine without doctor consultation as use of this medicine may harm the health of unborn baby or nursed child.

Before taking Livial medicine you should inform your doctor if you are taking any prescription, non prescription and herbal medicine. The recommended dosage for this medicine is one tablet in a day. Do not increase or decrease the dose of the medicine on your own as it may lead to serious side effect. Keep all medicines away from reach of the children and pet.

Basic Information on Lung Cancer Surgery

Early stage lung cancer (Stage I & II) is usually treated by surgical intervention and a combination of chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Stage II cancer may treated by surgery in certain instances, though generally later stage cancer is treated by chemotherapy alone or by combination of chemotherapy and radiation treatment – it is possible for tumors to be shrunk in size so a re-staging of the patient is warranted and surgery becomes a viable option.

The process of removing the cancer tumor is known as “resection”, or the cutting away of the cancer mass and suspected diseased tissue. There are a variety of surgical options available but the standard techniques are:

Thoracotomy – an incision is made through the chest wall; and

Median Sternotomy -where the surgeon cuts through the breastbone to access the chest cavity and the lungs.

As both of these techniques involve considerable recovery periods and pain for the patient, alternatives have been devised to provide access to lung cancer tumors and allow for less discomfort for the patient;

Anterior Limited Thoracotomy – known as “ALT” is performed on the front of the chest and involves a much smaller incision than thoracotomy or median sternotomy;

Anterioraxilary Thoracotomy – known as “AAT” involves an incision on the front of the chest close to the underarm; and

Posterolateral Thoracotomy – known as”PLT” involves an incision through the back or side of the chest area of the patient.

ALT in particular provides a less invasive option than a standard thoracotomy, and certainly results in reduced blood loss for the patient with a much reduced recuperation period and pain.

Video-Assisted Thoracoscopy or Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS)

VATS is a state-of-the-art surgical technique which allows for resection of tumors without the need for invasive, full-surgery. A video camera allows the surgeon to see the interior of the patient’s chest and the location of cancer tumors using a high-powered television screen. This provides a skilled surgeon with the ability to operate without actually opening up the patient and involves a much smaller set of incisions.

As the incisions and surgical-invasion is significantly reduced, the patient experiences far less pain and enjoys a much reduced recuperation period post-operation. The technique is not universally employed for two main reasons – firstly, the level of surgical skill required is very high and only highly skilled surgeons can utilize the technique successfully. In addition, as the surgeon is not provided with a full view of the area where the diseased tissue is located, it is possible to miss other cancer tumors or evidence of diseased tissue which a standard operation may uncover.

VATS is usually most appropriate for early stage lung cancer where there is no evidence that the disease has metastasized to other parts of the body or lungs themselves.

The Use of Other Therapies

Depending on the nature of the disease and the overall health of the patient, it is common for patients to undergo treatment pre and post-operation with chemotherapy and radiation treatment. In certain instances, where surgery is not advisable, a patient may undergo such alternative therapies in combination or as stand-alone treatments, but the exact treatment regime which is advised for a patient depends on individual circumstances and the findings of the oncology team providing treatment.

Women's Health: What To Do To Stay Healthy

The focus on women’s health is important because more times than most, it isn’t only the wellbeing of the fairer sex that’s at stake. Many turn out to mother children and if their health isn’t at its peak, it can mean health conditions and weakened immune systems for their babies.

Eating right

The first order of business is a healthy diet. The six basic nutrients we learnt about in school (to recap, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and water) make up the core of healthy diets and must be consumed in proportionate quantities. Since we all have different nutritional requirements, a dietician in consultation with a doctor can chart a healthy eating plan to match body needs.

Most foods today are made up of ingredients that aren’t good for health. Items high in cholesterol, sugar, sodium and saturated and unsaturated fats should be eliminated from a diet or at least kept to a minimum. On the other hand, whole grains, fish like salmon which are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, fresh fruits and vegetables, low fat milk and milk products and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats can do women a world of good.

Food allergies are a relatively common problem which forces people to eliminate certain items from their diet. The same applies to those with lactose intolerance. In such cases, substituting problem foods with those that don’t cause adverse reactions is the only solution.

Physical activity

Exercise and motion are the keys to keeping obesity at bay, improving blood circulation through increased heart rate, keeping joints flexible, muscles toned, enhancing sex life, and boosting good moods.

Working out three or four times a week is recommended and a gym isn’t always required. Short walks of 10 minutes spread out three or four times a day is enough. Engaging in sports, running and jogging are also great ways to work out.

Women who perform a lot of household chores manually are fitter than those who rely on machines. But since most of the population uses equipment, it’s necessary to supplement this with regular exercise.

Regular checkups

Certain health conditions are prevalent among women and some can be fatal if left untreated. Regular checkups can prevent them. Following are a few must-do’s for the fairer sex once they hit their 20s.

Complete physical: A complete physical consists of testing cholesterol, blood sugar, vitamin deficiencies, thyroid and kidney/liver function. It should start from the age of 20 followed by three to five year breaks for the rest of their lives.

Pap smear: A Pap smear is a procedure that checks for cervical cancer. Women aged 21 should begin the test followed by the same every two or three years. Once they hit 30, the test should be combined with one to check for HPV, a sexually transmitted disease, and followed by checkups every five years.

Mammogram: Where a Pap smear checks for cervical cancer, a mammogram does so for breast cancer. Women aged 40 and above are encouraged to undergo checkups every two years. If there’s a genetic predisposition to the disease, starting from the age of 30 is recommended.

Colonoscopy: A colonoscopy is a diagnostic tool that checks for colorectal cancer. Women aged 50 and above are more prone to developing the disease. However, getting a colonoscopy every 10 years drastically reduces its lethal outcome.

New Cancer Treatment Methods

The 5 year-survival rates for patients with leukemia has increased 400 percent over the last 50 years. This substantial increase is due to improvements in traditional treatment methods of chemotherapy, radiation and stem cell transplantation, as well as development in the newer fields of immunotherapy, and targeted drug therapy.

In the early 1960s, one in seven leukemia patients survived longer than 5 years. Today, that number is better than 1 in 2 and will probably improve with further advancements in the new treatment methods mentioned above. While most people unaffected by cancer are familiar with the concepts of chemotherapy and radiation, the new fields of immunotherapy, targeted drug therapy and stem cell transplantation are less understood.

Immunotherapy: Also called biological therapy and biotherapy, immunotherapy is a young treatment field that aims to fight off cancer by using natural substances that encourage the body’s own immune system to identify and fight off cancer, or, laboratory made substances (that are similar to our body’s own immune system components) to defend the body against cancer without the help of the patients own immune system. These “natural substances” and “lab made components” are not called drugs or medication. Instead, they are known as Biological Immune Response Modulators (BIRMS), and sometimes referred to as immunomodulators. The main types of BIRMS are interferons, interleukins, monoclonal antibodies, cancer vaccines and nonspecific nonspecific immunomodulating agents. BIRMs are often geared towards helping white blood cells (which fight off disease and infection), and special cells in our body called antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Antigen-presenting cells help identify unwanted cells and molecules by attaching themselves to them, and then presenting them to white blood cells. When presented, the APCs tell white blood cells that they should destroy any cells that like the one they are attached to.

According to the American Cancer Society, immunotherapy is still a small field which hasn’t yet proven itself to be better than other types of cancer treatments. However, it’s one that researchers say holds a lot of promise and is expected to provide many new advancements in the fight against cancer.

Many immunotherapy agents are of the monoclonal antibody type (MAB) and so are many targeted drug therapies. These two fields overlap when it comes to MABs. Immunotherapy is being applied and researched to many different types of cancer. With leukemia, besides MABs, interferon alfa is the most prescribed BIRM and is adminstered to patients with chronic types of leukemia.

Targeted Drug Therapy: Targeted drug therapy is also a new field which has many features that overlap with immunotherapy. Targeted therapy is an umbrella term that describes a new class of medicines which aim to halt or prevent new cancer cells from forming by stopping specific molecules and cells that assist new cancer cells in growing and dividing uncontrollably. So far, targeted therapy has had more success than immunotherapy with the introduction of new drugs that have become first and second line treatments in the fight against leukemia. Since these medicines only target specific cells, their side-effects are considered less severe than chemotherapy and radiation which targets cancer cells and healthy cells.

Targeted therapy drugs used in the first rounds of leukemia treatment (along with other methods) include: Imatinib, Nilotinib, and Dasatinib. Targeted therapy drugs used in the second round of treatment or after leukemia has returned from remission include: Tretinoin, Rituximab, Alemtuzumab, and Ofatumumab.

Extensive research of these BIRMs and targeted therapy drugs are being conducted on different types of leukemia and are moving through the clinical trial process.

Basics of Breast Cancer Causes and Breast Cancer Radiation

The incidence of breast cancer among women worldwide has been on the rise. An increasing number of cases are reported in USA too. This prevalence of breast cancer can be attributed to several factors. However, there are two major aspects that multiply the risks associated with this disease. The first risk is associated with aging. As you get older, your risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer increases. The second risk is linked to being female as this type of cancer is more common among women and rare among men. Breast cancer radiation or surgery is one of the most common methods employed for treating such cancers.

Over the years, extensive research has been carried out on this cancer to understand the conditions that lead to its occurrence. Here are some conditions that might be directly or indirectly responsible for causing breast cancer among women:

*If you have had a non-cancerous disease of the breasts, you are more vulnerable to being diagnosed with breast cancer in the subsequent years. The fact that you have heavy or dense breasts could also multiply your risks. Similarly, women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer could have a reoccurrence.

*If women in your family (especially your grandmother, mother, sister, or cousins) have a history of this cancer type, your risk increases too. If you have such a family history, it is advisable to get genetic test done to assess your risk and take preventative measures at an early age.

*Certain studies have also established that the intake of more than one alcoholic drink per day, or more than seven drinks per week could increase your cancer risk.

*Your race could be another deciding factor. Breast cancer is seen more commonly in White women than those of Hispanic, Asian, or Black descent.

*Hormonal factors could also affect the occurrence of this type of cancer. For instance, prolonged estrogen-progestin hormone therapy has in some cases been linked to the prevalence of breast cancer. Having your first baby late or not bearing a child at all could also be linked to this cancer. There are several other hormonal factors that your medical doctor can throw light on.

The treatment options

However, in the unfortunate event that you are diagnosed with breast cancer, surgery and breast cancer treatment can help treat your cancer. Both these treatment techniques have evolved and are often used in combination with each other for maximum results.

In a surgical procedure, the aim is to physically remove the cancer from the breast(s). Various methods such as lumpectomy, partial mastectomy or total mastectomy might be resorted to for this purpose. Breast cancer radiation aims to kill the cancerous cells to prevent them from proliferating further. Radiation has been proven to be effective in preventing the reoccurrence of cancer. While damage to the healthy tissues was a concern earlier, this aspect has been addressed today with the use of advanced breast cancer radiation that doesn’t damage surrounding healthy tissues.